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International Journal of Korean History > Volume 17(1); 2012 > Article
International Journal of Korean History 2012;17(1): 109-140.
The Political Nature of the Oriental Discourse of the Hwangsŏng sinmun : With a Special Focus on the Notion of an Oriental Identity
Yun-hee Kim
Research Professor, Asian Cultural Studies research Institute, Kyungwon University
김윤희
경원대학교 아시아문화연구소 연구교수
ABSTRACT
Existing studies on the formation of Korean modern nationalism have regarded the Oriental discourse that took place during the final period of the 19th century and early 20th century as a perception that failed to move beyond a Sinocentric order based on Confucianism and as one that essentially needed to be overcome during the process of forming nationalism. Such perceptions have led the Oriental discourse advanced by Hwangsŏng sinmun (Hwangseong sinmun; The Capital Gazette) to be regarded as a sign that traditional thinking methods continued to linger during the formation of anti-Japanese nationalism. However, these standpoints should now be reconsidered. As Hwangsŏng sinmun published strong anti-Japanese oriented editorials and promoted the notion of national identity during the period that surrounded the Ŭlsa Treaty of 1905 (Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty of 1905) and Chŏngmi Treaty of 1907 (Japan-Korea Treaty of 1907), it can also be regarded as not having overcome the Oriental discourse. Hwangsŏng sinmun hailed Confucian morality as an identity that the Orient should preserve and critically assailed Japan’s encroachment and the violent resistance waged by the righteous armies (ŏibyŏng; euibyeong) through the lens of Confucian morality. The double intentionality structure composed of the Oriental and national discourses moved in the direction of support for the notion of Korea as a protectorate. While the Oriental discourse that took place amidst asymmetrical relations between Korea and Japan was designed to support the ideology of an Oriental civilization led by Japan, the national discourse rooted in a Confucian culture that served as the national identity constituted an ideological mechanism through which capabilities were developed under the protectorate system. The Oriental discourse advanced by Hwangsŏng sinmun, which encompassed the national discourse, was a conservative political discourse that fostered the preservation of the protectorate.
Keywords: Oriental, homogeneity, identity, nation, protectorate, Hwangsŏng sinmun(The Capital Gazette), Tongnip sinmun (The Independent), (human) race, alliance

국문초록
한국 근대 민족주의 형성에 대한 기존의 연구는 19세기말 20세기 초 동양담론을 유교의 중화질서를 탈피하지 못한 인식으로서 민족주의의 형성 과정에서 극복되어야 할 인식체계로 보았다. 이로 인해 황성신문의 동양담론에 대해서도 반일민족주의 사상의 형성 과정에서 전통적 사유방식이 남아 있는 것이라고 보았다. 그라나 이러한 관점은 재고되어야 한다. 1905년 을사조약과 1907년 정미조약 과정에서 황성신문이 반일논설과 민족정체성 구상을 분명하게 표출했다고 해서 동양담론에서 벗어난 것은 아니었다. 1905년에서 1910년 사이 황성신문은 오히려 유교의 도덕성을 ‘동양’이 지키고 계승해야 할 정체성으로 구상했고, 유교적 윤리성을 통해 일본의 침략 행위와 의병의 폭력적 저항 모두를 비판했다. 동양담론과 민족담론의 이중적 담론체계는 ‘보호국’을 지지하는 방향으로 작동되고 있었다. 한일관계의 심각한 비대칭적 관계 속에서 동양담론은 일본이 선도하는 ‘동양’문명화의 이념을 지지하는 것이었으며, 유교문화를 민족의 정체성으로 구상했던 민족담론은 ‘보호국’ 체제 하에서 실력양성을 추동하는 이념적 기제였다. 민족담론을 포섭하고 있었던 황성신문의 동양담론은 보호국을 유지하는 보수적 정치담론이었다.
주제어: 동양, 동질성, 정체성, 민족, 보호국, 황성신문, 독립신문, 인종, 연대
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